1 – Go to the boot grub menu select option to edit i.e, press the key “e”


2 – Go to the word “ro” as shown in the screen below


3 – Change “ro” to “rw init=/sysroot/bin/sh” as shown below


4 – Now press Control+x to start on single user mode.


5 – Now access the system with this command.

chroot /sysroot

6 – Reset the password.

passwd root

7 – Update selinux information

touch /.autorelabel

8 – Exit chroot


9 – Reboot your system


Setup HA-Proxy with Keepalived

Setup HA-Proxy with Keepalived

Two Ubuntu 14.04 servers [1GB RAM each]

hostnames and IP addresses:

    haproxy1 (
    haproxy2 (

We’ll also need to allocate a third IP address to use as the virtual IP address (VIP).  
We’ll use

# vi /etc/sysctl.conf

Then we run the following command to make this take effect without rebooting:
# sysctl -p

# apt-get update && apt-get install keepalived haproxy -y

# vi /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf

global_defs {
  router_id haproxy1
vrrp_script haproxy {
  script “killall -0 haproxy”
  interval 2
  weight 2
vrrp_instance 50 {
  virtual_router_id 50
  advert_int 1
  priority 101
  state MASTER
  interface eth0
  virtual_ipaddress { dev eth0
  track_script {


router_id to be the hostname, and
the VIP as

# vi /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg

    chroot /var/lib/haproxy
    user haproxy
    group haproxy
    log local0
 stats socket /var/lib/haproxy/stats
    maxconn 4000

    log    global
    mode    http
    option    httplog
    option    dontlognull
        contimeout 5000
        clitimeout 50000
        srvtimeout 50000
    errorfile 400 /etc/haproxy/errors/400.http
    errorfile 403 /etc/haproxy/errors/403.http
    errorfile 408 /etc/haproxy/errors/408.http
    errorfile 500 /etc/haproxy/errors/500.http
    errorfile 502 /etc/haproxy/errors/502.http
    errorfile 503 /etc/haproxy/errors/503.http
 errorfile 504 /etc/haproxy/errors/504.http

listen stats
        mode http
        stats enable
        stats uri /stats
        stats realm HAProxy\ Statistics
        stats auth admin:password


Local IP addressis used in the file in two locations,
in the global section for the log location, and
in the stats listener.  

When you setup the second node, make sure to use its IP address.  
Also notice the username and password in the status auth line.  Set this to whatever you want.  
Then, you will be able to access the stats page via your browser.

Edit the file /etc/default/haproxy and change ENABLED from 0 to 1

Now we can restart the services:
service keepalived restart
service haproxy restart

Once you’ve completed all of these steps on both nodes,
you should now have a highly available load balancer pair.  
At this point, our VIP should be active on one node
(assuming that you built node 1 first, it should be active on that node).  

To confirm, we can use the ip command:

# ip a | grep eth0
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP group default qlen 1000
    inet brd scope global eth0
    inet scope global eth0

Notice that both the local IP and the VIP are shown.
If we now shutdown node 1, node 2 will quickly pick up the VIP.

To further confirm,
# ping
from any machine within same network & bring down the node1.

Final Note: Don’t forget to repeat all the steps on second node as well.


.bashrc linux tip/hack

.bashrc linux tip/hack

Add the below lines of bash script code to your .bashrc file & then you can start using the command:

extract () {
   if [ -f $1 ] ; then
       case $1 in
           *.tar.bz2)   tar xvjf $1    ;;
           *.tar.gz)    tar xvzf $1    ;;
           *.bz2)       bunzip2 $1    ;;
           *.rar)       unrar x $1      ;;
           *.gz)        gunzip $1       ;;
           *.tar)       tar xvf $1       ;;
           *.tbz2)      tar xvjf $1    ;;
           *.tgz)       tar xvzf $1    ;;
           *.zip)       unzip $1       ;;
           *.Z)         uncompress $1  ;;
           *.7z)        7z x $1        ;;
           *)           echo “don’t know how to extract ‘$1’…” ;;
       echo “‘$1’ is not a valid file!”

Simple steps to Reset Lost or Forgotten Password of Ubuntu/Linux

Simple steps to Reset Lost or Forgotten Password of Ubuntu/Linux

  1. Reboot your computer.
  2. Hold Shift during boot to start GRUB menu.
  3. Highlight your image and press E to edit.
  4. Find the line starting with “linux” and append rw init=/bin/bash at the end of that line. The end of the line should now look like this: rw init=/bin/bash
  5. Press Ctrl + X to boot.
  6. Type in passwd username.
  7. Set your password.